Appendix 3: Reserve statistics

Robert Pringle and Nick Carver

Figure 1 Central bank reserve holdings*, by country 2012–21
Figure 2 Top 100 central bank reserve holdings*, by value 2012–21
Figure 3 Currency composition of global foreign exchange reserves 2021*

*Figures for “central bank reserve holdings” refer to foreign exchange, gold – at market prices – SDRs, and positions at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), unless otherwise stated. This calculation differs from those produced by the Fund, which value gold at historical prices. Figures for “foreign exchange reserves” refer to holdings of currencies only. Years refer to year-end

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