Riksbank uncovers problems in offline CBDC test

Latest phase of e-krona testing focused on offline payments and preventing fraud

Sveriges Riksbank
Daniel Hinge

Sveriges Riksbank says more work is needed to tackle persistent problems in the design of offline central bank digital currency (CBDC).

“A secure and functional offline solution requires a lot of development work on technology,” the Swedish central bank said on March 20, after concluding the fourth testing phase of the e-krona.

During this period of testing, the central bank introduced a “shadow wallet” to enable offline payments between individuals and businesses. The Riksbank found that keeping

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